EIRP Proceedings, Vol 11 (2016)

The Youth of Today - The Generation of the Global Development

The Discourse of the Power

Adina Elena Sandu1, Ciprian Roscaneanu2

Abstract: Power it's in the middle of the international system. The behavior of each state and the dynamism of the international system rise in the structure and the distribution of the global power. Power represents the keystone of the international relationships. All the realistic theories consider that the worries about power, the balance of the power, the dynamism of the power, represents the engine of the international business. Also, it represents a basic instrument, if it isn’t the only one, in order to achieve the national interests’ goals. As a result, realistic theories posit that the states are in a constant competition to achieve the power.

Keywords: balance; international relationships; national interests’ goals


Power it's in the middle of the international system. The behavior of each state and the dynamism of the international system rise in the structure and the distribution of the global power.

Power represents the keystone of the international relationships. All the realistic theories considered that the worries about power, the balance of the power, the dynamism of the power, represents the engine of the international business. Also, it represents a basic instrument, if it isn’t the only one, in order to achieve the national interests’ goals. As a result, realistic theories posit that the states are in a constant competition to achieve the power.

According to Joseph Nye

There are three types of powers in his classification about it:

  1. Soft power the ability to form beliefs of other states through persuasion and attraction. Credibility is the most feared resource. At political level it was reached the idea that persuasion, negotiation and use of a variety of tools are beneficial for both peaceful strong states, and for the poor ones, who suffered greatly from the use of force.

Economically, it is about a simple calculation cost-benefit type declaring that war or threat of force, excessive militarization and hard politics can damage much greater, or in any case involving the allocation of vast budgetary resources for the maintenance of an army oversized or a war waged on the basis of new technologies.

  1. Hard power. It’s the use of economic or military resources to influence the behavior or interests of other states. This form of political power is often aggressive.

According to Joseph Nye, the term is “the ability to use carrots and sticks of economic and military power to make others follow your will.” Here, “carrots” are incentives such as reducing trade barriers, offer or promise of an alliance or military protection. On the other hand, “sticks” are threats, including the use of coercive diplomacy, the threat of military intervention or economic sanctions implementation. Ernest Wilson describes as the ability to coerce “another act in ways that entity would not have acted differently”.

  1. Smart power. Combines the strategies of the two powers mentioned above. Joseph Nye believes that it’s the best strategy combining power but it needs a strong army and diplomatic alliances or partnerships.

How do we perceive the Power?

Ioan Jude makes the difference between political power and state power. State power is supposed to be the authority delegated by the people. It can be maintained as long as the power structures are legitimate, and it does not act on the company or parts of it. Political power is understood as being the only sovereign power, indivisible, inalienable and imprescriptible.

But what is the real difference between the two of them?

Political power is continuous, not erode over time, its essence and content doesn't change over the time. On the other hand the power status is prone power changes in terms of content and forms of exercise and in terms of power holder.

The Speech in the Discourse of the Power

The speech is an essential tool which conquers, retains and exercises the power. Also, the speech is the mechanism whereby a political actor may succeed or may rate to conquer, retain and exercise power.

In a system desirable normal as the democratic actions of those who wish to accede to power or to retain it are most actions, processes and commitments of the order discursiveness because speech is the most efficient way to connect those who can grant legitimacy.

The Future of the Power

Joseph makes out a case that the boom age of some countries such as China, India or Brazil is not synonym with a decline of USA. Thinking that the USA’s place will be gradually taken by other economics and politics powers is not correct, only looking at the figures, we lose sight of exactly the power mechanisms.

USA may seem a power in decline not because of the ascension of other countries but because of informatics revolution so they can offer answers to the main challenges of the modern world: nuclear danger, Islamic fundamentalism, the ascension of the Asia.

There are few chances that a global government to be formed in the 21th century, some degree of global dependence can be identified, but nations are not like human beings to be able to predict their lives and their behavior.

From the “Cold War Order” to “The New Global Disorder”

Vladimir Putin declared that the extinction of the URSS was the twentieth century biggest tragedy. We can say that in fact it is about the way that the URSS disappeared is been a tragedy, for their direct successors and also, for their ex-rivals.

We can't be frightened of Russia, because this state it's not far so strong, but it count with so many resources to resignedly accept the lack of a post -imperial status recognized to a worldwide level, this post-soviet Russia was surrounded of new states ready to enter in the national exclusivism contest, but they also have a lack of national cohesion criteria.

The East, now equated with the Islamic fundamentalism, was called to replace the old Soviet hereditary enemy in a new crusade waged by “Americanized Empire of good”.

Cold War bipolarity guaranteed balance, either the terror that was the basis for predictability, stability and security relations between countries of the world. Unilateralism which was imposed by the fall spontaneously one of opposites, put under question all the principles of law of the bipolar order: sovereign equality, non-intervention, nonaggression and the threat of force etc. In the absence of the old rules, the single superpower inevitably abuse (any power corrupts; absolute power corrupts absolutely) induced a greater chaos as the US proved able to win any war but unable to impose peace.

The economic crisis mankind claimed today is a crisis of global balances and a moral crisis. The West itself has been declining, reaching behave today frivolity the senile empires are convicted to die.

Putin and the New Russia

For Russia and for the Russians the sun rises over America. It's not just the symbolism, Russia only compares itself with the United States.

Through this comparison Russia becomes a superpower, even in the ONU area and it takes control over the strategic areas, but Russia hasn't the ability to lay out its power at a global scale.

From the Tsushima war, 1905 that Russia lost with Japan, and to the Kursk submarine explosion in 2000 Russia was a constant loser in the game for the navy power and we can't think that it would regain the lost territory in a time. However, both currently and in the future than the main threat is that cohorts of assassins of militant Islam. Putin avoid to talk about it when referring to the dangers of terrorism but as a result of the wars in Afghanistan and Chechnya, traumatic, and the terrorist attacks changes, Russians are extremely aware of this continuing threat.

Germany in the Balance of the Power

The Fischer doctrine proclaim that the existence of Nazi crimes made as Germany to be responsible for preventing their recurrence. In September 1999 the German Chancellor Schroder announces that Germany already had become a major power in Europe. This transition was underlined by the removal of the capital from Bonn to Berlin over the course of that year. Germany began to lose stability at the Centre of the continent.

The impact of European integration on the Balkan crisis was huge. Therefore, the beginning of the new century has witnessed a massive intensifications of the European politico-military integration and NATO enlargement, Germany opening the way, given its size and central position. In other words, the European Union will transcend Mittelage.

French President Mitterand and its Impact on European Construction

Strengthening policy influence internationally initiated by French President Mitterrand, challenging USA hegemony, and the actions to develop the construction undertaken in the European Community have allowed France to make their voice heard at the international level in the context of the cold war.

Mitterrand wanted to favor multilateral crisis management, being the origin of the ONU resolutions, the creation of the international criminal tribunals for the former Yugoslavia (1993), Rwanda (1995) and the draft International Criminal Court.

At the Community level, European action to Mitterrand was consolidated his cooperation with WEST GERMANY and in 1983 declared that France and Germany are the ones that are supposed to build the foundations of an agreement increasingly more solid.

USA in Relation to the Balance of Power

Beyond Europe, the United States of America, are so large and strong. You can't compare them with China, India or Europe, but we only could compare them with Russia.

The United States Army's ability to project power on the world scale.

The exercise of power is ambiguous in terms of morale, but the moral principles of the USA will have no value if the country is destroyed. Pursuit of universal rights requires more than just speeches, require power. To get to this point, the American people have to mature, it is a people invented, what awaits solutions to problems which do not require perfection and solve from its leaders.

Emerging China

At the beginning of the XXI century, China is poised to become a major world power. Although it has been written about the emergence of China, a key aspect of this transformation went unnoticed: how China uses soft power to call its proximity both to states and to more distant states.

We have examined the significance of China's recent reliance on soft power at: - diplomacy, trade incentives, cultural and educational exchange opportunities, and other techniques to project an image of itself beneficial to position itself as a successful social and economic model, and to develop stronger international alliances.

For Chinese power, soft power means anything outside the military and the security, including not only popular culture and public diplomacy, but also economic and diplomatic coercive levers - “carrots and sticks”. Indeed, Beijing may threaten other nations with these “punishments” if that does not help China achieve its objectives, but it can be rewarding greatly if they do. Soft power can be “high-level” meant elites of a country, or “low”, targeting the general public. It can come from government and non-governmental actors.

In China, soft power has become one of the most commonly used phrases among political leaders and journalists. Chinese leaders are trying to use soft power in international politics strategy of China. For example, former president of the Republic of China (RPL) Hu Jintao noted that rising international status of China and its influence depends both on hard power, which includes elements of economics, science, technology, and defense, as well as soft power which involves elements of culture, highlighting the urgent need to build China's cultural soft power to meet domestic needs and to meet the challenges of the international system.

Some analysts believe that Chinese soft power is weak now, but other observers think that the prospect of China's soft power can compete with other countries, because China has abundant sources of soft power such as culture, traditional philosophy, etc.

Paternalism and Change

Paternalism is a form of exercise of power typically specified the totalitarian societies, but they are not limited to them. And because power is required, not recognized as a form of paternalism, excessive exercising totalitarian power is often associated with many limiting democratic freedoms which could threaten the stability at a time.

Freedom of expression is amputated or canceled, the right of association is allowed only in supporting structures of power, the opposition is silenced or eliminated, diversity of any kind is perceived as a threat and so on. And when all the power is focused in the hands of a man, excessive paternalism can take the form of personal dictatorship, like Hitlerism, Stalinism, Maoism or Ceauşescu regime.

Where power is exercised paternalistically, it is unevenly distributed and concentrated in high places. Decisions are taken from the top down, not bottom-up, and virtually no civil society. Responsibility for decision-making is undertaken almost entirely by power management.

Citizens want daddy to enjoy protection, but also waive the willing or unwilling, to some democratic freedoms. Over time, almost imperceptibly, they come to experience the fear or the inability to say no to the one who is now manager of individual and collective destinies. Therefore daddy is loved and hated in equally. Long term in companies with excessive paternalism problems are not solved by social frustration, stress, such as elections, but by riots or revolutions.


International relations have undergone important changes in the last decades, but the most important ones are and will be those relating to organizational principles. “Soft power” can be one of the most important changes, and once more states will resort to techniques adjacent cultural diplomacy and “soft power" when global competition will enter a completely different era. Already, it is diminished the role of the military in foreign affairs, but this change will not end weapons implication whatsoever, but rather a recalibration. Also, to effectively use the mechanisms that make up “soft power” it will require a more professionalized information wing, and here, reforms and new strategies adopted by the world's intelligence is made precisely within this purpose.


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1 Student, Danubius University of Galati, Romania, Address: 3 Galati Blvd., Galati 800654, Romania, Tel.: +40372361102, Corresponding author:

2 Student, Danubius University of Galati, Romania, Address: 3 Galati Blvd., Galati 800654, Romania, Tel.: +40372361102, Corresponding author:


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